Generators are useful appliances
that supply electrical power during a power outage and prevent discontinuity of
daily activities or disruption of business operations. Generators are available
in different electrical and physical configurations for use in different
applications. In the following sections, we will look at how a generator
functions, the main components of a generator, and how a generator operates as
a secondary source of electrical power in residential and industrial
does a generator work?
An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy obtained from
an external source into electrical energy as the output.
It is important to understand that a
generator does not actually ‘create’ electrical energy. Instead, it uses the
mechanical energy supplied to it to force the movement of electric charges
present in the wire of its windings through an external electric circuit. This
flow of electric charges constitutes the output electric current supplied by
the generator. This mechanism can be understood by considering the generator to
be analogous to a water pump, which causes the flow of water but does not
actually ‘create’ the water flowing through it.
The modern-day generator works on
the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday in
1831-32. Faraday discovered that the above flow of electric charges could be
induced by moving an electrical conductor, such as a wire that contains
electric charges, in a magnetic field. This movement creates a voltage
difference between the two ends of the wire or electrical conductor, which in
turn causes the electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current.
of a generator
The main components of an electric generator can be broadly classified as
follows (refer to illustration above):
(3) Fuel System
(4) Voltage Regulator
(5) Cooling and Exhaust Systems
(6) Lubrication System
(7) Battery Charger
(8) Control Panel
(9) Main Assembly / Frame
A description of the main components
of a generator is given below.
The engine is the source of the input mechanical energy to the generator. The
size of the engine is directly proportional to the maximum power output the
generator can supply. There are several factors that you need to keep in mind
while assessing the engine of your generator. The manufacturer of the engine
should be consulted to obtain full engine operation specifications and
(a) Type of Fuel Used – Generator engines operate on a variety of fuels such as
diesel, gasoline, propane (in liquefied or gaseous form), or natural gas.
Smaller engines usually operate on gasoline while larger engines run on diesel,
liquid propane, propane gas, or natural gas. Certain engines can also operate
on a dual feed of both diesel and gas in a bi-fuel operation mode.
(b) Overhead Valve (OHV) Engines versus non-OHV Engines – OHV engines differ
from other engines in that the intake and exhaust valves of the engine are
located in the head of the engine’s cylinder as opposed to being mounted on the
engine block. OHV engines have several advantages over other engines such as:
• Compact design
• Simpler operation mechanism
• User-friendly in operations
• Low noise during operations
• Low emission levels
However, OHV-engines are also more
expensive than other engines.
(c) Cast Iron Sleeve (CIS) in Engine Cylinder – The CIS is a lining in the
cylinder of the engine. It reduces wear and tear, and ensures durability of the
engine. Most OHV-engines are equipped with CIS but it is essential to check for
this feature in the engine of a generator. The CIS is not an expensive feature
but it plays an important role in engine durability especially if you need to
use your generator often or for long durations.
The alternator, also known as the ‘genhead’, is the part of the generator that
produces the electrical output from the mechanical input supplied by the
engine. It contains an assembly of stationary and moving parts encased in a
housing. The components work together to cause relative movement between the
magnetic and electric fields, which in turn generates electricity.
(a) Stator – This is the stationary component. It contains a set of electrical
conductors wound in coils over an iron core.
(b) Rotor / Armature – This is the moving component that produces a rotating
magnetic field in any one of the following three ways:
(i) By induction – These are
known as brushless alternators and are usually used in large
(ii) By permanent magnets – This is common in small alternator units.
(iii) By using an exciter – An exciter is a small source of direct current (DC)
that energizes the rotor through an assembly of conducting slip rings and
The rotor generates a moving
magnetic field around the stator, which induces a voltage difference between
the windings of the stator. This produces the alternating current (AC) output
of the generator.
The following are the factors that
you need to keep in mind while assessing the alternator of a generator:
(a) Metal versus Plastic Housing –
An all-metal design ensures durability of the alternator. Plastic housings get
deformed with time and cause the moving parts of the alternator to be exposed.
This increases wear and tear and more importantly, is hazardous to the user.
(b) Ball Bearings versus Needle Bearings – Ball bearings are preferred and last
(c) Brushless Design – An alternator that does not use brushes requires less
maintenance and also produces cleaner power.
(3) Fuel System
The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational
for 6 to 8 hours on an average. In the case of small generator units, the fuel
tank is a part of the generator’s skid base or is mounted on top of the
generator frame. For commercial applications, it may be necessary to erect and
install an external fuel tank. All such installations are subject to the
approval of the City Planning Division. Click the following link for
further details regarding fuel tanks for generators.
Common features of the fuel system
include the following:
(a) Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine – The supply line directs fuel
from the tank to the engine and the return line directs fuel from the engine to
(b) Ventilation pipe for fuel tank – The fuel tank has a ventilation pipe to
prevent the build-up of pressure or vacuum during refilling and drainage of the
tank. When you refill the fuel tank, ensure metal-to-metal contact between the
filler nozzle and the fuel tank to avoid sparks.
(c) Overflow connection from fuel tank to the drain pipe – This is required so
that any overflow during refilling of the tank does not cause spillage of the
liquid on the generator set.
(d) Fuel pump – This transfers fuel from the main storage tank to the day tank.
The fuel pump is typically electrically operated.
(e) Fuel Water Separator / Fuel Filter – This separates water and foreign
matter from the liquid fuel to protect other components of the generator from
corrosion and contamination.
(f) Fuel Injector – This atomizes the liquid fuel and sprays the required
amount of fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine.
(4) Voltage Regulator
As the name implies, this component regulates the output voltage of the
generator. The mechanism is described below against each component that plays a
part in the cyclical process of voltage regulation.
(1) Voltage Regulator: Conversion of
AC Voltage to DC Current – The voltage regulator takes up a small portion of
the generator’s output of AC voltage and converts it into DC current. The
voltage regulator then feeds this DC current to a set of secondary windings in
the stator, known as exciter windings.
(2) Exciter Windings: Conversion of DC Current to AC Current – The exciter
windings now function similar to the primary stator windings and generate
a small AC current. The exciter windings are connected to units known as
(3) Rotating Rectifiers: Conversion of AC Current to DC Current – These rectify
the AC current generated by the exciter windings and convert it to DC current.
This DC current is fed to the rotor / armature to create an electromagnetic
field in addition to the rotating magnetic field of the rotor / armature.
(4) Rotor / Armature: Conversion of DC Current to AC Voltage – The rotor /
armature now induces a larger AC voltage across the windings of the stator,
which the generator now produces as a larger output AC voltage.
This cycle continues till the
generator begins to produce output voltage equivalent to its full operating
capacity. As the output of the generator increases, the voltage regulator
produces less DC current. Once the generator reaches full operating capacity,
the voltage regulator attains a state of equilibrium and produces just enough
DC current to maintain the generator’s output at full operating level.
When you add a load to a generator,
its output voltage dips a little. This prompts the voltage regulator into
action and the above cycle begins. The cycle continues till the generator
output ramps up to its original full operating capacity.
& Exhaust Systems
(a) Cooling System
Continuous usage of the generator causes its various components to get heated
up. It is essential to have a cooling and ventilation system to withdraw heat
produced in the process.
Raw/fresh water is sometimes
used as a coolant for generators, but these are mostly limited to specific
situations like small generators in city applications or very large units over
2250 kW and above. Hydrogen is sometimes used as a coolant for the stator
windings of large generator units since it is more efficient at absorbing heat
than other coolants. Hydrogen removes heat from the generator and transfers it
through a heat exchanger into a secondary cooling circuit that contains
de-mineralized water as a coolant. This is why very large generators and small
power plants often have large cooling towers next to them. For all other
common applications, both residential and industrial, a standard radiator and
fan is mounted on the generator and works as the primary cooling system.
It is essential to check the coolant
levels of the generator on a daily basis. The cooling system and raw water pump
should be flushed after every 600 hours and the heat exchanger should be
cleaned after every 2,400 hours of generator operation. The generator should be
placed in an open and ventilated area that has adequate supply of fresh air.
The National Electric Code (NEC) mandates that a minimum space of 3 feet should
be allowed on all sides of the generator to ensure free flow of cooling air.
(b) Exhaust System
Exhaust fumes emitted by a generator are just like exhaust from any other
diesel or gasonline engine and contain highly toxic chemicals that need to be
properly managed. Hence, it is essential to install an adequate exhaust system
to dispose of the exhaust gases. This point can not be emphasized enough
as carbon monoxide poisoning remains one of the most common causes for death in
post hurricane affected areas because people tend to not even think about it
until it’s too late.
Exhaust pipes are usually made of
cast iron, wrought iron, or steel. These need to be freestanding and should not
be supported by the engine of the generator. Exhaust pipes are usually attached
to the engine using flexible connectors to minimize vibrations and prevent
damage to the generator’s exhaust system. The exhaust pipe terminates outdoors
and leads away from doors, windows and other openings to the house or building.
You must ensure that the exhaust system of your generator is not connected to
that of any other equipment. You should also consult the local city ordinances
to determine whether your generator operation will need to obtain an approval
from the local authorities to ensure you are conforming to local laws a protect
against fines and other penalties.
(6) Lubricating System
Since the generator comprises moving parts in its engine, it requires
lubrication to ensure durability and smooth operations for a long period of
time. The generator’s engine is lubricated by oil stored in a pump. You should
check the level of lubricating oil every 8 hours of generator operation. You
should also check for any leakages of lubricant and change the lubricating oil
every 500 hours of generator
(7) Battery Charger
The start function of a generator is battery-operated. The battery charger
keeps the generator battery charged by supplying it with a precise ‘float’
voltage. If the float voltage is very low, the battery will remain
undercharged. If the float voltage is very high, it will shorten the life of
the battery. Battery chargers are usually made of stainless steel to prevent
corrosion. They are also fully automatic and do not require any adjustments to
be made or any settings to be changed. The DC output voltage of the battery
charger is set at 2.33 Volts per cell, which is the precise float voltage for
lead acid batteries. The battery charger has an isolated DC voltage output that
does interfere with the normal functioning of the generator.
This is the user interface of the generator and contains provisions for
electrical outlets and controls. The following article provides further details
regarding the generator control panel.
Different manufacturers have varied features to offer in the control panels of
their units. Some of these are mentioned below.
(a) Electric start and shut-down – Auto start control panels automatically
start your generator during a power outage, monitor the generator while in
operation, and automatically shut down the unit when no longer required.
(b) Engine gauges – Different gauges indicate important parameters such as oil
pressure, temperature of coolant, battery voltage, engine rotation speed, and
duration of operation. Constant measurement and monitoring of these parameters
enables built-in shut down of the generator when any of these cross their
respective threshold levels.
(c) Generator gauges – The control panel also has meters for the measurement of
output current and voltage, and operating frequency.
(d) Other controls – Phase selector switch, frequency switch, and engine
control switch (manual mode, auto mode) among others.
Assembly / Frame
All generators, portable or stationary, have customized housings that provide a
structural base support. The frame also allows for the generated to be earthed
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